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Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Italy.

Take Home Message

This study did not find a benefit associated with vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 patients but did identify that vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for higher in-patient mortality.

Results

  • The use of 25OHD supplements (mean intake, 58.846 IU/mo) was reported by 38 (11.7%) participants out of 324.
  • Serum 25OHD levels of supplemented inpatients (n = 11) were about 3-fold higher than those of nonusers. Two of the supplemented patients had insufficient levels and three were deficient status.
  • Forty-three (21.8%) out of 197 participants with COVID-19 identified through the phone survey required hospitalization, and 47 (27.6%) of hospitalized patients (n = 170) died.
  • The use of 25OHD supplements was not associated with either hospitalization or in hospital mortality, although a trend toward a 2-fold higher risk of death was found for supplement users, particularly after adjusting for potential related conditions.

Who

324 COVID-19 cases were included: 105 in group 1 (Parkinson’s Disease (PD) patients), 92 in group 2 (PD caregivers), and 127 in group 3 (hospital inpatients).

Things to Keep in Mind

This is a single center study and the patients included were among the worst as they were hospitalized at the peak of the pandemic when there was only hospital space for the worst cases. In addition, the one group had Parkinson’s disease which could impact results. The Information from the PD patients and caregivers was obtained via phone surveys and interviews.

Author’s Conclusions

25OHD supplementation was not associated with hospitalization but appeared to be a risk factor for higher in-hospital mortality in COVID-19. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of vitamin D supplementation and status in modulating the severity of COVID-19, as well as preventing it.

Study Design

  • This study was conducted to evaluate whether 25OHD supplementation, which may be a better surrogate of real 25OHD status, is associated with prognosis in COVID-19 patients from the Italian outbreak area of Lombardy.
  • The PD and PD caregivers were assessed via phone surveys between March and May 2020, group 3 was admitted to the hospital during April and May 2020.
  • Data from the three groups were analyzed.
  • Information on supplementation with 25OHD (defined as at least 25 000 IU/month in the last 3 months, ~800 IU/day), weight status, comorbidities, serum 25OHD, COVID-19 diagnosis, and related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality were gathered by direct interview and validated through medical records.
  • In hospital inpatient participants, fasting venous serum samples were collected within 48 hours of admission for the assessment of 25OHD.
  • Hospitalization and in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 were the study end points.

Reference

Cereda E, Bogliolo L, Lobascio F, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Italy. Nutrition. 2021;82:111055. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111055

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2021-06-14T15:46:52-05:00