All patients were assessed for vitamin D status subjects were assigned into one of the following categories based on their total 25 (OH) D levels: optimal: (>78 nmol/l or >30 μg/l), insufficiency (52–75 nmol/l or 20–29 μg/l), deficiency (26–52 nmol/l or 10–20 μg/l) and severe deficiency (<26 nmol/l or <10 μg/l). Serum calcium was also assessed and hypocalcemia was defined as a corrected serum calcium level of less than 2.20 mmol/l .
In addition to 25 (OH) D and total serum calcium, all patients were tested upon admission for the following laboratory parameters: hypersensitive troponin (hsTrp), inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelets; blood glucose and renal markers: blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr); nutritional markers: serum albumin, total protein, and total cholesterol (TC); liver enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamo-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) glutamo-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatases (ALP).
Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines by an increase in serum creatinine of 26.5 μmol/l (03 mg/l) within 48 hours or at least a 50% increase in serum creatinine over 7 days. Cardiac injury was defined based on the hsTrp Kit by an hsTrp >100 ng/l or an increase of more than 30% of the baseline value.