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Get summaries of key research on vitamin D and COVID-19
Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients
Take Home Message
In this study, of German patients, an association was reported between Vitamin D status, severity of COVID-19 and mortality from the disease.
- Hospitalized patients were older, were predominantly male, and had substantially more comorbid conditions.
- A total of 41 (22%) patients were VitD-deficient (<12 ng/mL) and 118 (64%) patients had VitD levels < 20 ng/mL.
- Median VitD level was significantly lower in the inpatient versus the outpatient subgroup. A higher proportion of inpatients was VitD-deficient (VitD < 12 ng/mL).
- Median follow-up was 66 days (range 2–92 days).
- A total of 16 patients died and 23 patients required invasive mechanical ventilation.
- Median age and hospitalization rate was higher and more patients required (intensive) oxygen therapy in those that were vitamin D deficient. The findings were similar in the subgroup of hospitalized patients.
- In VitD-deficient patients, median IL-6 levels (a marker of systemic inflammation) at hospitalization were significantly higher (70.5 versus 29.7 pg/mL.
- In the outpatient subgroup, no differences between VitD-deficient patients and patients with VitD levels ≥ 12 ng/mL were observed.
- Adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities, VitD deficiency was associated with higher risk of IMV/D and death
185 consecutive symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive patients admitted to the Medical University Hospital Heidelberg. Ninety-two (50%) patients were followed in the outpatient setting and 93 (50%) patients required hospitalization.
Things to Keep in Mind
This was a single-center, retrospective, and observational study. Potential confounders like obesity (as reflected by the body mass index) or other specific comorbidities were not considered. No causal association between VitD deficiency and severity/outcome of COVID-19 can be concluded.
This observational study among patients with COVID-19 who have experienced a definite outcome shows an association between VitD status and severity of and mortality from COVID-19. Prospective, randomized controlled studies on VitD supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals are highly warranted.
- Date was taken retrospectively from a prospective non-interventional register.
- Vitaming D (VitD) status at first presentation was assessed retrospectively using accredited laboratory methods.
- VitD deficiency was defined as serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D level < 12 ng/mL (<30 nM). Primary endpoint was severe course of disease (i.e., need for invasive mechanical ventilation and/or death, IMV/D).