Review the Research

Get summaries of key research on vitamin D and COVID-19

Vitamin D and COVID-19 Infection

Take Home Message

Vitamin D deficiency and obesity increases risk of testing positive for COVID-19.


  • 103 patients were COVID-19 positive.
  • Patients who required intensive care have an average vitamin D level of 27.6nmol/L; those treated at the ward level were 45.6nmol/L.
  • Those patients who were discharged had an average vitamin D level of 45.2nmol/L and those who died had a 41.0nmol/L, which was an insignificant difference.


103 COVID-19 positive patients (46 males and 57 females, mean age: 73.6 years)

Things to Keep in Mind

This study examined cases in a single center, had no control to compare levels of vitamin D with an unaffected population, and also had no data on comorbidities.


Author’s Conclusions

The authors concluded that low vitamin D can increase susceptibility of contracting COVID-19, increase severity of infection but does not affect mortality.

Study Design

  • A prospective study between March 2020 and May 2020 looked at patients who were admitted to the hospital.
  • Patients were tested for COVID-19 and vitamin D levels on admission.
  • Greater than 50nmol/L was adequate vitamin D levels; 25-50nmol/L were insufficient; less than 25nmol/L were deficient


Ainine A, Heward E, Kapasi R, Rocke J, Darby D, Kumar N, Ashish A. Vitamin D and COVID-19 Infection. Med J Malaysia. 2021 Nov;76(6):881-883. PMID: 34806677.

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Research Summaries

Association Between Vitamin D Supplementation and COVID-19 Infection and Mortality

Association Between Vitamin D Supplementation and COVID-19 Infection and Mortality Take Home Message Among VA (Veterans Administration) patients, vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 supplementation reduced the associated risk of COVID-19 infection